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Blutwlfin
Friday, September 7th, 2007, 07:04 PM
In 1786, Sir William Jones proposed classifying Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, Germanic, Persian, and Celtic into a single language family that had come from a common origin, now known as Proto-Indo-European. Since then, many more language families have been identified and studied, and ancestral proto-languages reconstructed. Many linguists have been investigating deep relationships that link known families into macrofamilies. For example, Nostratic links Indo-European with Uralic, Altaic, Dravidian, Afro-Asiatic, and Kartvelian. Ultimately, all human languages could conceivably be traced back to a single origin, and this has been seriously proposed. The hypothesis is called Proto-World.

"A basic tenet of Nostratics is that Western comparative linguists, in classifying the world's languages and thus tracing their historical lineage, have been too timid ... According to classic Nostratic doctrine, the Indo-European language family is only one of six branches of a much larger family. This 'superfamily' the Nostratic family extends to the south, covering languages of northern Africa and the Middle East (and languages of India unaccounted for by Indo-European), and well to the north and east, covering scores of languages from Finland through Siberia all the way to Korea and Japan. The idea is that all these languages are offshoots of the proto-Nostratic tongue, spoken by a people who lived more than 10,000 years ago. Nostraticists, through the arcane detective work that is a primary pastime of comparative linguistics, have reconstructed this language. They have compiled a dictionary containing hundreds of proto-Nostratic words, modeled after the proto-Indo-European dictionaries that have long been accepted in the West as standard reference works.

The assertion that proto-Nostratic actually existed, though sufficient to inflame a number of American linguists, is innocuous compared with the second part of Shevoroshkin's world view: the Nostratic phylum is itself historically related to the handful of other great language families Shevoroshkin sees in the world, which means that all of them are descended from a common tongue. This language called, variously, proto-Human, proto-World, and the Mother Tongue would have been spoken 50,000, 100,000, maybe even 150,000 years ago, probably in Africa, and then diffused across the globe. And here's the kicker, the thing that gives Shevoroshkin a rock-solid basis for his bunker mentality: he believes not only that proto-World's past existence is apparent but that proto-World is itself apparent, its primordial elements distinctly visible in modern languages, as refracted through eons of linguistic evolution. He says we can now begin reconstructing proto-World, the basic vocabulary from which all the world's known languages have sprung."

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Reconstructed Proto-World vocabulary: I found these words in On the Origin of Languages by Merritt Ruhlen. Chapter 14, "Global Etymologies," by John D. Bengtson and Ruhlen, includes along with these twenty-seven Proto-World roots a list of descendants in the various daughter languages of the world.

Proto-World English

1. *AYA'mother; older female relative' ayah; !Kung 'ai 'mother'; Somali hooyo 'mother'; Tamil yaL 'mother'; Malay ayah 'father'; Nez Perce ayat 'grandmother'

2. *BU(N)KA'knee; to bend' bow; elbow; bog (<Irish bog 'soft'); Proto-Bantu bonggo 'bend down'; Sanskrit bhugna 'bent'; Uyghur bk- 'kneel'; Proto-Mongolian bke 'bend'; Ainu -poki- 'bow down'; Proto-Australian Aboriginal pungku 'knee'; Papuan poko 'knee'; Caddo buko 'knee'; Zuni poku 'to fold'

3. *BUR'ashes; dust' Arabic barr 'dry land' > barrio; Hindi br 'powder, sawdust'; Finnish ply 'dust'; Estonian pori 'mud'; Telugu podi 'dust'; Burushaski bur-di 'the ground'; Altai bur 'ashes'; Kazakh bor 'chalk'; Buriat bur 'clay'; Manchu buraki 'dust, sand'

4. *CHUN(G)A'nose; to smell' snout; snot; snuff; Egyptian sn 'smell'; Hausa sansana 'smell'; Georgian sun 'smell'; Tamil, Malayalam cuNTu 'bill, beak, snout'; Basque sunda 'smell'; Tibetan sna 'smell'; Nahali chon 'nose'; Seneca oseno 'smell'; Wintu sono 'nose'

5. *KAMA'hold (in the hand)' Swahili kama 'squeeze'; Arabic kamshah 'handful'; Hausa kama 'catch'; Estonian kamal 'handful'; Finnish kmmen 'palm of the hand'; Latvian gmstu 'seize, grasp'; Proto-Turkic kama 'seize'; Mongolian qamu 'gather, pick up'; Proto-Thai *kum 'hold with the hand'

6. *KANO'arm' Proto-Indo-European *kon-t 'ten'; Proto-Germanic handuz 'hand' > English hand; Swahili m-kono 'arm, hand'; Masai kaina 'hand'; Proto-Uralic konE-ala 'armpit' (-ala = 'beneath'Hungarian hn-alj, Finnish kain-alo); Yukagir khanba 'hand'; Tulu kankuLa 'armpit'; Kannada kankuR 'armpit'; Yeniseian ken 'shoulder'; Chinese chian 'shoulder' (<Ancient Chinese ken); Proto-Tibeto-Burman kan 'arm'; Tasmanian gouana 'arm, hand'; Vietnamese canh 'arm, branch, wing'; Navajo gaan 'arm'; Blackfoot kin- 'hand'

7. *KATIbone Latin costa 'rib' > coast, accost, cuesta, cutlet; Samoyed kot 'rib'; Hausa k^ashi 'bone'; Arabic qass 'sternum'; Chinese ku 'bone' (< Old Chinese *kwet); Pawnee kisu 'bone'; Chinook qotso 'bone'

8. *K'OLO'hole' hole; cul(-de-sac); !Kung !koro 'hole'; Finnish kolo 'hole'; Korean kul 'cave'; Japanese kur- 'hollow'; Tamil akkuL 'armpit'; Tibetan kor 'hole, pit'; Caucasian kur 'pit'

9. *KUAN'dog' canine; cynic; hound; !Kung /gwi 'hyena'; Proto-Afro-Asiatic *k(y)n 'dog, wolf'; Proto-Indo-European *kwon- 'dog' > Sanskrit s'van, Phrygian kan, Latin canis, Greek kuon, Germanic hund; Proto-Uralic *kin 'wolf'; Old Turkish qanchiq 'bitch'; Monglian qani 'wild dog'; Proto-Tungus-Manchu *khina 'dog'; Korean ka 'dog' (< kani); Gilyak kan 'dog'; Chinese kou 'dog' (<Archaic Chinese khjwen); Tibetan khyi 'dog'; Proto-Oceanic *nkaun 'dog'; Taos kwiane-, Tewa tukhwana 'fox, coyote'

10. *KU(N)'who?' - who, what, when, where, why, how; quality, quantity; < Proto-Indo-European *kwo~ kwi 'who'; Sanskrit kas 'who', Hindustani kaun 'who?', Latin quis 'who', quod 'what', quam 'how, as', quom 'when'; !Kung ka 'when'; Proto-Bantu *ki~ k 'which'; Masai ka 'which'; Proto-Semitic *ka 'how', Arabic ka- 'as'; Somali kuma 'who'; Hausa k^a 'what'; Proto-Uralic *ke~ ki 'who', *ku~ ko 'who, which, what'; Yukagir kin 'who'; Hungarian ki who'; Finnish ken, kuka 'who'; Proto-Turkic *k'En 'who', *ka interrogative; Tatar kem 'who'; Proto-Mongolian *ken 'who', *ka 'where'; Proto-Tungus-Manchu *kha 'what, how, how much'; Korean ka interrogative; Japanese ka interrogative; Ainu ka interrogative; Gilyak ka interrogative; Malay ka interrogative; Proto-Eskimo-Aleut *ken 'who', qa interrogative; Proto-Caucasian *kwi 'who, which'; Burushaski ke 'when'; Old Chinese kiei 'how much'; Tlingit kusu 'where'; Australian Aboriginal kuwa 'who', kamu 'what'; Vietnamese gi 'what'; Quapaw ka 'what'; Cherokee gago 'who'; Onondaga kanin 'where'; Caddo kwit 'where'; Mohawk ka 'where'; Seneca kwanu 'who'; Klamath kani 'who'; Proto-Aztecan kaan 'where'; keem 'how'; Cuna kana 'when' (etc., etc. I could give many more examples, but this is already very lengthy.)

11. *KUNA'woman' queen; gyne(cology); zenana (< Persian zan); Proto-Afro-Asiatic *k(w)n 'wife, woman'; Kaffa gene 'lady'; Xamta eqwen 'wife'; Dembia kiuna 'wife'; Oromo qena 'lady'; Akkadian kini-tu 'wife'; Berber te-kne 'wife'; Proto-Indo-European *gwena 'wife, woman'; Sanskrit gn 'goddess'; Lydian kna 'woman, wife'; Avestan gena 'wife'; Slavic zhena 'wife, woman'; Proto-Turkic *kni 'wife'; Kirgiz kn 'wife'; Eskimo aganak 'woman'; Proto-Caucasian *q(w)n- 'woman'; Andaman chana 'woman'; Tasmanian quani 'wife, woman'; Australian Aboriginal Warrgamay gajin 'female'; Shawnee kwan-iswa 'girl'; Dakota hun 'mother'; Cayuse kwun-asa 'girl'; Zuni k'anakwayina 'woman'; Tonkawa kwan 'woman'; Zapotec gunaa 'woman'; Tupi kuya, Guarani kua 'female'

12. *MAKO'child' mac < Irish mac 'son' < Proto-Indo-European *maghos 'young', *maghu 'child, boy' > Old English magu 'child, son, man'; Tamil maka 'child, son'; Kannada maga 'son'; Bantu manku, mongo 'child'; Proto-Caucasian *mik'w- 'young one'; Proto-Tibeto-Burman mak 'son-in-law'; Papuan mak 'child'; Natick mukketchouks 'boy'; Beothuk magaraguis 'son'; Acoma mage 'girl'; Cayuse m'oks 'baby'; Modoc mukak 'girl'; Zuni maki 'young woman'

13. *MALIQ'A'to suck(le); nurse; breast' milk < Proto-Indo-European *melg- 'to milk' > Greek amelgo, Latin mulgere; Russian moloko 'milk', Tocharian A malke 'milk'; Proto-Afro-Asiatic *mlg 'breast, udder, suck'; Arabic malaja 'to suck the breast'; Egyptian mng, mlg 'woman's breast, udder'; Somali maal- 'to milk'; Proto-Finno-Ugric mlge 'breast'; Kurux melkha 'throat, neck'; Malto melqe 'throat'; Tamil melku 'chew'; Telugu mekku 'eat, gobble'; Aleut umlikh 'chest'; Eskimo miluga 'sucks it out'; mulik 'nipple'; Lower Fraser melqw 'throat'; Nootka mukw 'swallow'; Yurok mik'olum 'swallow'; Takelma mulk 'swallow'; Yuma malaqe 'neck'; Havasupai milqe 'throat'; Quechua malq'a 'throat'

14. *MANA'to stay (in a place)' remain, permanent (< Latin manere < Proto-Indo-European *men 'to remain > Sanskrit man 'to linger, not budge from a place', Persian mn- 'stay, remain'); amen (< Hebrew amen), Arabic amina 'be secure' < Proto-Afro-Asiatic *mn 'to remain, be firm' > Egyptian mn, Coptic mun 'to remain', Omotic min 'be firm, strong', Oromo mana, Somali miin 'home'; Georgian mena 'dwelling'; Proto-Dravidian *man 'to remain in a place' > Tamil mannu 'to be permanent, remain long, stay', Malayalam mannuka 'to stand fast', Telugu mannu 'to last, be durable'; Evenki Tungus mana 'to live settled'; Proto-Caucasian 'i-ma(n) 'to stay, be', Hurrian mann- 'to be'; Basque min 'to place, set up, settle'; Papuan mana 'to dwell' 'to sit, stay'; mina 'stay'; Tsimshian man 'remain'; Zuni 'ima 'sit'; Quechua ma- 'be'

15. *MANO'man' man; < Proto-Indo-European *manu(-s) > Sanskrit manuS 'man, person', Avestan manus 'man', Gothic manna; Rwanda mana 'man'; Me'en me'en 'person'; Didinga mats 'male'; Dinka mots 'person'; Proto-Afro-Asiatic *mn 'male, man, person'; Egyptian Min (a phallic deity); Somali mun 'male'; Berber iman 'person'; Chadic *mani 'man, person'; Proto-Uralic *mnce 'man, person' > Hungarian magyar (self-name), Vogul mansi (self-name), Finnish mies 'man'; Gondi manja 'man, person'; Tamil mntar 'people, men', man 'king, husband'; Old Japanese wo-mina 'woman' (Modern Japanese onna); Ainu mene-ko 'woman'; Papuan munan, mando, mundu 'man'; Nahali mancho 'man'; Miao hmong (self-name); Yao man~ myen (self-name); Bella Coola man 'father'; Squamish man 'husband'; Proto-Tupi *men 'husband'; Cayapo mn 'person'

16. *MENA'to think (about)' mind; mental; memory; mantra < Proto-Indo-European men 'think', Sanskrit manas 'mind', Latin mens 'mind', memini 'remember', monere 'remind, warn'; Sandawe me:na 'to like'; Malinke mEn 'understand'; Proto-Bantu *meni~ man 'know'; Proto-Afro-Asiatic *man 'think, understand, wish, desire, count', Arabic mun 'wish', Hebrew manah 'to count', Somali maan 'mind', Chadic man 'know', mon, min 'wish'; Proto-Uralic *manV~ monV 'guess, speak', Hungarian mon-d 'say', Samoyed maan, muno 'say, command', Finnish manaa 'warn, admonish, curse, bewitch', Mordvin muna 'bewitch'; Tamil manu 'prayer, request', Telugu manavi 'prayer, request'; Turkish mani, Crimean Tatar man 'folk song'; Basque mun 'medulla', munak (pl.) 'brains'; Burushaski minAs 'story, tale'; Tibetan ming 'to name', Burmese man 'to be named'; Proto-Tibeto-Burman *mang 'dream'; Shawnee menw 'prefer, like'; Laguna amu 'love'; Catawba mu'e 'wish'; Spokane -manen 'wish'; Miwok mena 'think'; Mixtec mani 'love'; Aymara muna 'seek'; Quechua muna 'wish'

17. *MI(N)'what?' Proto-Afro-Asiatic m(j) 'what, who', Arabic m 'what', man 'who', Hebrew mi 'who' (>Michael), Egyptian m(j) 'who', ma 'what', Berber ma 'what', Oromo mani 'what'; Proto-Kartvelian ma 'what', mi(n) 'who', Georgian ma 'what', Chan min 'who'; Old Irish ma 'if'; Middle Breton ma 'what'; Tocharian A mnt 'how'; Proto-Uralic mi 'what', Samoyed ma 'what'; Hungarian mi 'what, which'; Proto-Turkic mi 'what', Turkish mi interrogative; Korean muot 'what'; Ryukyuan mi 'what', interrogative; Ainu mak 'what'; Chukchi mikin 'who'; Kamchadal min 'which'; Proto-Caucasian ma interrogative; Burushaski mEn 'who'; Chinese ma interrogative; Proto-Australian Aboriginal minha~ minya 'what'; Mon mu 'what'; Orang Asli ma 'what'; Mandan mana 'who'; Nez Perce mana 'what'; Choctaw mano 'when'; Quechua mina 'what'; Toba-Guazu mi 'who'; Botocudo mina 'who'

18. *PAL'two' Proto-Bantu badi 'two'; Nubian bar(-si) 'twin'; Proto-Indo-European *pol 'half', Sanskrit (ka-)palam 'half', Russian pol 'half'; Proto-Uralic pl 'half', Hungarian fl 'half', Votyak pal 'side, half'; Tamil pl 'part, portion, share'; Andaman -pol 'two'; Proto-Austalian *bula 'two'; Munda bar 'two'; Khmer pir 'two'; Orang Asli ber- 'two'; Javanese ke-bar 'doubled'; Wintun palo(-l) 'two'; Chiripo bor 'two'; Quechua pula 'both'

19. *PAR'to fly' Yoruba fo 'to fly'; Dinka par 'to fly'; Aramaic parr 'flee', Arabic farra 'flee'; Beja far 'jump, hop'; Georgian p'er 'to fly'; Sanskrit parNa 'feather'; Avestan parena 'feather, wing'; Persian parr- 'to fly'; parr 'wing' >? peri); Yukagir perie 'feathers'; Khanty por 'to fly'; Tamil paRa 'to fly, hover, flutter'; Gilyak parpar 'to fly, hover about'; Proto-Caucasian *pirV 'to fly', Abkhaz pir 'to fly'; Basque pimpirina 'butterfly' (< *pir-pir-); Proto-Sino-Tibetan *phur 'to fly', Chinese fei 'to fly' (< Archaic Chinese *pjwer); Tibetan 'phur-ba 'to fly'; Khmer par 'to fly'

20. *POKO'arm' bough < Proto-Indo-European *bhaghu 'arm, forearm, elbow', Sanskrit bhuh 'arm', Persian bz 'arm', Tocharian A poke 'arm'; Dagomba bogho 'arm'; Proto-Bantu *boko 'arm'; Proto-Mongolian *baghu- 'upper arm'; Proto-Tibeto-Burman *pow~ bow 'arm'; Proto-Austronesian *('a)-bagha` 'shoulder'; Dakota xupahu 'arm'; Choctaw ibbok 'hand, arm'

21. *PUTI'vulva' English slang poontang < French putaine 'whore' < Vulgar Latin putta 'girl' < Proto-Indo-European *puto 'cunnus' > Sanskrit putau 'buttocks', Nepali puti 'vulva' Old Icelandic fu 'cunnus', Middle High German vut 'vulva'; Malinke butu 'vulva'; Songhai buti 'vulva'; Proto-Afro-Asiatic *pwt 'hole, anus, vulva', Hebrew pot 'vulva' ("secret parts" in the King James Version, Isaiah 3:17), Somali futo 'anus', Oromo fudji 'vulva'; Tamil puNTai 'vulva', poccu 'vulva, anus'; Malayalam pru 'buttocks, vulva'; Kannada pucci 'vulva'; Telugu pDa 'anus'; Tulu pTi 'vulva'; Middle Mongolian ht-gn 'vulva'; Old Japanese photo 'vulva' (mod. hoto); Proto-Eskimo-Aleut *putu 'hole'; Proto-Caucasian *puti '(female) genitals'; Svan putu 'hole'; Basque poto-rro 'pubis, vulva'; Australian Aboriginal Luridya puda 'vulva'; Maori puta, Tagalog puki 'vulva'; Delaware saputti 'anus'; Mohegan sebud 'vagina'; Chinook puch 'penis'; Quechua upiti 'anus', Aymara phuthu 'hole'

22. *TEKU'leg; foot' Konyagi -tak 'heel'; Nilo-Saharan *tak'a 'foot, shoe'; So tEg 'foot'; Somali tag- 'go'; Proto-Central Dravidian *tk 'to walk', Telugu Dekka 'hoof; Proto-Eyak-Athabaskan *t'ax 'foot'; Tasmanian tokana 'foot'; Mandan dok'a 'leg'; Mixe tek 'foot'; Tinigua dikki 'foot'; Arawak adikki-hi 'footprint'

23. *TIK'finger; one' toe < Proto-Germanic *taihwo; Proto-Indo-European *deik- 'to show, point' > in-dic-ate, digit, in-dex; *dekm 'ten' > decimal; ten, Latin dicare 'to say' > diction, dictate; Fon d^okpa 'one'; Ewe deka 'one'; Proto-Afro-Asiatic *tak 'one', Oromo toko 'one', Berber tukod 'finger', Hausa (d^aya) tak 'only one'; Udmurt odig 'one'; Komi et'ik 'one'; Turkish tek 'only, single'; Mongolian nik-en 'one'; Korean ttayki 'one thing', teki 'one guy', Old Korean tek 'ten'; Japanese te 'hand'; Eskimo tiq-(iq) 'index finger'; Proto-Yeniseian *tok 'finger'; Ancient Chinese t'iek 'single, one'; Proto-Tibeto-Burman *tyik 'one', Tibetan (g-)tsig 'one'; Burmese tahku 'one'; Tlingit tl'eeq 'finger', tlek 'one'; Navajo l/a' 'one'; Papuan dik 'one'; Proto-Austroasiatic (k-)tig 'arm, hand', Vietnamese tay 'hand', Khmer tai 'hand', Munda ti' 'hand', Orang Asli tik 'hand'; Proto-Miao-Yao *nto' 'finger', Miao Hmong txhai-te 'hand'; Proto-Austronesian *(tu-)ding 'point with the finger', Malay tangan 'hand'; Nootka takwa 'only'; Cherokee sakwa 'one'; Pawnee uska 'finger'; Mohawk tsi'er 'finger'; Quapaw chak 'finger'; Karok tik 'finger, hand'; Washo tsek 'finger'; Quechua sok 'one'; Yagua teki 'one'; Katembri tika 'toe'; Kukura tikua 'finger'

24. *TIKA'earth' humus, human < Latin < Proto-Indo-European *dhghem- 'earth' > Sanskrit kSham, Persian zamin, Russian zemlia, Greek chthon, Albanian dhe, Tocharian A tkam 'earth', Old Irish du 'place'; Proto-Bantu taka 'earth, mud, ground, soil', Swahili taka 'dirt'; Old Georgian tiqa 'clay, dirt'; Tamil tukaL 'dust'; Old Japanese tuki 'mud', tuki 'land'; Burushaski tik 'earth, ground'; Ket tag-ar 'clay'; Chinese ti 'earth'; Haida tliga 'earth, ground'; Nootka ts'ak'umts 'earth'; Squamish tiqw 'muddy'; Seneca -tki- 'dirty'; Shasta ts'ik 'mud'; Hopi titskia 'earth'; Binticua tikan 'earth'; Quechua ch'ichi 'dirty'; Chavante tika 'earth'

25. *TSAKU'leg, foot' Arabic sq 'leg', sqa 'to drive' > sq 'street; market' > souk; Proto-Bantu *tsaku 'calf of the leg'; Dinka-Nuer tsok 'foot'; Sanskrit sak(-thi) 'thigh'; Yukaghir tsogh(-ul) 'foot, leg'; Saami chaewga 'hock of reindeer'; Hunza shAk 'forearm, thigh'; Ancient Chinese *tsiwok 'foot', Cantonese tsuk 'foot'; Andaman tsok 'leg'; Munda dzung 'foot'; Mon tsng 'foot, leg'; Khmer dzYng 'leg, foot'; Orang Asli dzogn 'foot'; Kutenai saq' 'leg'; Klamath ch'og 'leg'; Zuni sakwi 'leg'; Pomo shaku 'leg'; Mohave tsakas 'hip'; Ixcatec tsaku 'leg'; Proto-Quechuan *Chaki 'foot'

26. *TSUMA'hair' !Kung chum 'shell', sh'um 'skin'; Proto-Omotic *somm- 'pubic hair'; Proto-Southern Cushitic *se'em 'hair'; Old Egyptian zm3 'hair'; Hausa suma 'growth of hair'; Proto-Caucasian ts'Hweme 'eyebrow'; Basque zam-arr 'lock of wool, shock of hair'; Proto-Yeniseian tsenge 'hair'; Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tsham 'hair', Archaic Chinese *sam 'hair, feather', Proto-Tibeto-Burman tsam 'hair'; Proto-Miao-Yao*sjam 'beard, moustache'; Pawnee oshu 'hair'; Dakota shu 'feather'; Sahaptin shemtai 'pubic hair'; Nez Perce simtey 'feather'; Pomo chheme 'body hair'; Tsonenka chomki 'pubic hair'; Quechua sunk`a 'beard'

27. *'AQ'WA'water' Proto-Indo-European *akwa- > Latin aqua > aquatic; !Kung kau 'to rain', k''a 'drink'; Fur koi 'rain'; Nyimang kwe 'water'; Proto-Afro-Asiatic *`q(w) 'water'; Proto-Uralic *yoka 'river'; Japanese aka 'bilge water'; Ainu wakka 'water', ku 'drink'; Proto-Lezghian 'oqwa- 'rain'; Proto-Sino-Tibetan *Ku 'fluid, spill', Newari khwo 'river'; Papuan okho 'water, river'; Proto-Australian *gugu 'water'; Proto-Central Algonquian *akwa 'from water', Kuteani -qw 'in water', Snohomish qwa' 'water'; Caddo koko 'water'; Zuni k'a 'water'; Chimarico aqa 'water'; Kashaya 'ahqha 'water'; Quechua yaku 'lake'.


Source (http://members.aol.com/yahyam/protoworld.html)