View Full Version : Indo-European Root Words and Verbs

Saturday, November 2nd, 2002, 07:39 AM
Since reconstructed Proto-Indo-European, or 'PIE', is considered Linguistic History, I decided to put this post in the History Forum.

Here's a link to a PIE root verb: *bhel-: white, clear; to shine, to be white.


Now, this link at the bottom links to a verb-conjugation page at Verbix.com. It has the reconstructed verb inflections of all the verb tenses that existed in PIE.


Enjoy! :)

Saturday, November 2nd, 2002, 03:30 PM
Here is another good example:
English: Mother
German: Mutter
Swedish: Moder
Dutch: Moeder
Russian: Mat
Polish: Matka
Latin: Mater
Spanish: Madre
French: Mère
Italian: Madre
Portuguese: Matriz

Sunday, November 3rd, 2002, 01:54 AM

Croatian: majka
Icelandic: móðir
Welsh: mam, or fam
Hungarian: mama

Compared to nonwhite languages:

Turkish: ana
Chinese: Niàng
Swahili: nina

Sunday, November 3rd, 2002, 06:20 AM
More examples:
English: Sun
German: Sonne
Swedish: Sol
Dutch: Zon
Russian: Sonn or Sonna, I believe
French: Soleil
Italian: Sole
Spanish: Sol

English: Cat
German: Katze
Dutch: Kat
Swedish: Katt
Russian: Kot
French: Chat
Spanish: Gato
Italian: Gatto

I will try and think of some more tomorrow, but this is enough for tonight....

Sunday, November 3rd, 2002, 07:39 AM
Proto-Indo-European Root/Stem: *sneigwh- (Snow)

Greek: niks, niphos (snow), neiphei (it snows)

Latin: nix, nivis (snow), ninguit (it snows)
French: neige
Sardinian: nie
Ladin: naiv
Italian: neve
Catalan: neu
Spanish: nieve
Occitan: neu
Portuguese: neve

Common Celtic: *snig-
Old Irish: snigid (it snows), snechta (snow)
Irish: sneachta
Scottish: sneachtadh

Gothic: snaiws
Old High German: snîvit (it snows)
Old English: snâw
Old Norse: snâer
Swedish: sno
Norwegian: sne
Icelandic: snjór
German: Schnee
Frisian: snie
Dutch: sneeuw
Africaans: sneeu

Avestan: snaez'aiti (it snows)
Sanskrit: snihyati (he gets wet)

Common Baltic *snég-
Lithuanian: sniega (it snows), snigti (to snow)
Latvian: snigt
Old Prussian: snaygis
Sudovian: snaigas

Common Slavic: *snegü-
Old Church Slavonic: snegü
Ukrainian: snig
Bulgarian: sniag
Macedonian: sneg
Serbo-Croatian: snijeg
Slovene: sneg
Czech: snih
Slovak: sneh
Polish: s'nieg
Upper Sorbian: sneh
Lower Sorbian: sneg
Polabian: snêg
Russian: sneg, snezhit' (to snow)

I hope it doesn't snow tonight. x_p

Wednesday, November 6th, 2002, 12:48 PM

Latin: pluvia
Spanish: Lluvia
Latvian: lietus
French: Pluie
Italian: Pioggia
Portugese: chover
Slovenian: dež
Belorussian: doždž
Czech: d隻
Polish: deszcz, or padać
Romanian: ploaie
Serbian: padati
Croatian: padati, or lijevati
Finnish: vuodattaa or sadella

German: regnen
English: rain
Swedish: regn
Danish: regn
Dutch: regen, neerslag, hemelwater (sky-water literally)
Norwegian: regne
Icelandic: rigning

(Note: You can see a distinct separation between the Slavic, Germanic, and Latin Languages)

Non-white languages:

Turkish: yağmur
Swahili: mvua
Indonesian: hujan
Seneca: ustáá'
Filipino: umulan
Potawatomi Indian: kmowen

Wednesday, November 6th, 2002, 01:04 PM

Danish: træ
English: tree
Icelandic: tré
Swedish: träd
Latin: nemus, or arbor
German: Baum
Dutch: boom
Spanish: árbol
French: arbre
Italian: albero
Polish: drzewo
Czech: dřevo

Interesting how they break up into separate entities again........

Wednesday, November 6th, 2002, 02:58 PM
Indo-European had many derivatives for the same thing or idea.

For example, the verb "to be"; Indo-European had two of them. One for animate objects and another for inanimate objects.

(? = Not sure yet.)

Animate Used for people, animals, Gods, and Deities.
*Es-, To be

Eg esmi (I am)
Tu essi (You are)
Ki esti (He is)
Ko esti (That is)
S(w)e esti (Oneself is)
We esmés (we are)
? esthé (You all are)
? esént (They are)

Inanimate Used for objects that did not move, such as trees, rocks, ground, etc.
*bhe-, To be

Eg bhemi (I am)
Tu bhesi (You are)
Ki bheti (He is)
ko bhete (That is)
S(w)e bheti (Oneself is)
We bhemés (we are)
? bhethé (You all are)
? bheént (They are)

Apparently, *bhe-, became used for all things animate and inanimate in Common Germanic. Whereas, *es-, became used for both animate and inanimate objects in Common Italic.

Sunday, November 10th, 2002, 06:01 PM
Very similar to the Sanskrit grammar:

Bhava (To be or have a meaning/sense)
Asti (Is, simply to exist)

Monday, November 11th, 2002, 02:35 AM
very very very interesting.... guys just wanted to say, sun in russian is actually Ñîëíöå (Solntsye) ;)

Monday, November 11th, 2002, 02:38 AM

INDO EUROPEAN ORIGIN TABLE. (http://www.m-w.com/mw/table/indoeuro.htm)

Wednesday, November 13th, 2002, 07:18 AM
Ah, I was looking for that chart, but couldn't remember where to find it...

Thursday, January 16th, 2003, 05:32 AM
I finally found the root Indo-European pronoun for the second person plural. It's "yu". However, I still have difficulty finding the root I.E. third person plural pronoun. Thank god for books. :)

"Yu" being a cognate of the Latin "Vos", the French "Vous", the Spanish "Vosotros"; Vosotros coming from "Vos alteros" in the Vulgar Latin dialect of Spain. It's also a cognate of the English word "You". In Early Modern English, the word "thou", as well as the inflected verb suffix for the verb root that corresponded with "thou", became arachic and was replaced by "You", which had a plural stance previously.

Thursday, January 16th, 2003, 05:51 AM
You'd would be surprised how many Indo-European words were derived from Semitic languages such as Arabic, Hebrew and etc.

For example the word “Alphabet" comes from the Semitic letters alif (first letter) + ba = beit. Beit was the second pictographic letter in the Phoenician.

Furthermore, the classical Greek alphabet, its order of letters, and their form, were borrowed from the Phoenician alphabet; alpha, beta, gamma, delta, are but Grecized sounds of the Phoenician language.

Thursday, January 16th, 2003, 05:58 AM
I already knew that beforehand. But that does explain why English, as well as a few other I.E. languages, have a significant amount of words that are not Indo-European in origin, passed down by generations of War, Conquest, and Renaissance.

And no Saladin, the Phoenicians weren't Indo-European. x_p

Thursday, January 16th, 2003, 07:52 AM
Originally posted by Conquistador
And no Saladin, the Phoenicians weren't Indo-European. x_p

I never said they were.

Thursday, January 16th, 2003, 07:42 PM
Originally posted by Saladin
I never said they were.

It was meant to be a joke.

Sunday, May 11th, 2003, 06:46 PM
I don't think the phoenicians were semite,I have read somewhere the phoenicians settled in Tunisia from Iran,in that case they were indeed indo-european

Friday, May 16th, 2003, 03:42 AM
"Here's a link to a PIE root verb: *bhel-: white, clear; to shine, to be white."

Yes, Beograd, Serbia= White city. Hm Beowulf=white wolf, shining wolf!

Friday, May 16th, 2003, 05:13 PM
Originally posted by Fionn mac Cumhaill
Here is another good example:
English: Mother
German: Mutter
Swedish: Moder
Dutch: Moeder
Russian: Mat
Polish: Matka
Latin: Mater
Spanish: Madre
French: Mère
Italian: Madre
Portuguese: Matriz

Gaeilge - mathair/mhathair/mamaí/mham