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Blutwölfin
Thursday, September 15th, 2005, 04:58 PM
https://forums.skadi.net/attachment.php?attachmentid=111847&stc=1&d=1465817512

The Golden horns of Gallehus were two golden horns, one shorter than the other, discovered in North Slesvig, or Schleswig, in Denmark. The horns were believed to date to the fifth century (Germanic Iron Age).

The horns were made of solid gold and constructed from rings, each covered with figures soldered onto the rings, with yet more figures carved into the rings between the larger figures. These figures probably depict some actual events or norse saga which is now unknown to us.

The most probable theory is that the illustrations comes from Celtic mythology rather than Norse: the horns portray a man with horns and a necklace, very similar in appearance to the Celtic god Cernunnos (especially compared to the Cernunnos portrait on the Gundestrup cauldron, also found in Denmark), and several iconographic elements such as a he-goat, snakes and deers, commonly associated with Cernunnos. Several other archeological findings from southern Scandinavia also show influence from Celtic religion.

The horns are believed to originate with the Angles, but several theories of their origins exist. The horns have probably been used for ritual drinking and subsequently sacrificed in the earth or buried as a treasure, though this is also uncertain. Similar horns of wood, glass, bone and bronze have been found in the same area, some obviously used for blowing signals rather than drinking.

Both horns had been the same length, but the narrow end of the second (short) horn was plowed up and recovered prior to 1639, and the gold was melt down and lost.

The first horn (the long, intact one) was 75,8 centimeter measured on the outer perimeter, the opening diameter was 10,4 centimeter, and weighed 3,2 kg. This horn was discovered on July 20 1639 by a peasant girl named Kirsten Svendsdatter in the village of Gallehus, near Møgeltønder when she saw it protrude above the ground.

She wrote a letter to the Danish king Christian IV of Denmark who retrieved it and in turn gave it to the Danish prince (also named Christian), who refurbished it into a drinking horn. The Danish antiquarian Olaus Wormius wrote a treatise named De aureo cornu on the first Golden horn in 1641.

The first preserved sketch of the horn comes from this treatise. In 1678 it was described in the scientific journal Journal de Savants.

About 100 years later on April 21, 1734 the other (shorter, damaged) horn was found by Erich Lassen not far from the first one. He gave it to the count of Schackenborg who in turn delivered it to the king Christian VI of Denmark and received 200 rigsdaler in return.

From this moment both horns were stored at Det kongelige Kunstkammer at Christiansborg, currently the Danish Rigsarkivet (national archive). The short horn was described in a treatise by archivist Richard Joachim Paulli the same year.

This second horn featured a runic inscription saying "Ek Hlewagastiz holtijaz horna tawido" with the approximate translation:


I, leeguest from/son of Holt made the horn or
I, Hlewagastiz (=personal name) hold (this) horn (that I) made.

Historians still don't agree about the exact translation. This inscription is one of the earliest inscriptions in the Older Futhark, and a line of alliterative verse.

On May 4 1802 the horns were stolen by a goldsmith and watchmaker named Niels Heidenreich, who gained access to the storage area using two forged keys and immediately afterwards destroyed them in his kitchen to recycle the gold.

The thievery was discovered the next day and advertisements were put into present day mass media with a bounty of 1000 rigsdaler and full anonymity for information that would lead to the arrest of the culprit.

The grandmaster of the goldsmith guild, Andreas Holm suspected that Hiedenreich had been involved, since he had tried to trick him into buying forged pagodas (indian coins with god motifs), made of bad gold mixed with brass. Holm and his colleagues had watched Heidenreich and seen him dumping coin stamps in the town moat. He was arrested on April 27 1803 and confessed the theft on April 30.

He was subsequently sentenced to prison on June 10 1803 and not released until 1840. Four years later he died. The gold sold by Heidenreich was returned by the buyers, but was not used for creating new copies, instead it was used for coins.

Sketches of the images on the horns and the runic inscription were however made and thus approximate copies could be made. New copies were created in 1980, portrayed in the image at the top. Exact plaster copies had also been made for a cardinal in Rome, but the ship carrying the copies sank outside Corsica, so these copies were lost.

Heidenlord
Thursday, September 15th, 2005, 05:50 PM
How ironic is it that someone with the name Heidenreich was responsible for their destruction?

Ethelwulf
Friday, September 16th, 2005, 12:50 AM
Great article.

Ulex
Friday, October 7th, 2005, 03:14 PM
The same year which the horns were stolen, the great Danish national romantic poet, Adam Oehlenschläger (1779-1850), wrote a poem to honour the horns and their makers. Oehlenschläger also wrote the beautiful verses in the Danish national anthem, of which I will roughly translate the first lines:

There is a beautiful land
that proudly spreads her beeches
beside the Baltic shore,
a land that curves in hill and dale,
that men have named Old Denmark;
and this is Freya's hall.


His poem "The Golden Horns" goes like this (sorry, I haven't got the time to translate it, but if you guys are interested, I will later translate some exerpts):


Guldhornene

http://www.kalliope.org/gfx/trans1x1.gif
De higer og søger
I gamle Bøger,
I oplukte Høie
Med speidende Øie,
Paa Sværd og Skiolde
I muldne Volde,
Paa Runestene
Blandt smuldnede Bene.

Oldtids Bedrifter
Anede trylle;
Men i Mulm de sig hylle,
De gamle Skrifter.
Blikket stirrer,
Sig Tanken forvirrer.
I Taage de famle.

"I, gamle, gamle
"Hensvundene Dage,
"Da det straalte i Norden,
"Da Himlen var paa Jorden,
"Giv et Glimt tilbage!"

Skyen suser,
Natten bruser,
Gravhøien sukker,
Roser sig lukker,
De øvre Regioner
Toner.
De sig møde, de sig møde,
De forklarede Høie,
Kampfarvede, røde,
Med Stierneglands i Øie.

"I, som raver i blinde,
"Skal finde
"Et ældgammelt Minde,
"Der skal komme, og svinde.
"Dets gyldne Sider
"Skal Præget bære,
"Af de ældste Tider.
"Af det kan I lære.
"Med andagsfuld Ære,
"I vor Gave belønne!
"Det skiønneste Skiønne,
"En Mø
"Skal Helligdommen finde."
Saa synge de og svinde.
Lufttonerne døe.

Hrymfaxe, den sorte,
Puster, og dukker
Og i Havet sig begraver.
Morgenens Porte
Delling oplukker,
Og Skinfaxe traver
I straalende Lue
Paa Himlens Bue.

Og Fuglene synge.
Duggperler bade
Blomsterbade
Som Vindene gynge.
Og med svævende Fied
En Mø hendandser
Til Marken afsted.
Violer hende krandser.
Hendes Rosenkind brænder.
Hun har Lilliehænder.
Let som en Hind,
Med muntert Sind.
Hun svæver, og smiler;
Og som hun iler,
Og paa Elskov grubler -
Hun snubler,
Og stirrer, og skuer
Gyldne Luer,
Og rødmer, og bæver,
Og zittrende hæver
Med undrende Aand,
Af sorten Muld
Med sneehvide Haand
Det røde Guld.

En sagte Torden
Dundrer.
Hele Norden
Undrer.

Og hen de stimle
I store Vrimle,
og grave og søge,
Skatten at forøge.
Men intet Guld!
Deres Haab har bedraget;
De see kun det Muld,
hvoraf de er taget.

Et Sekel svinder.

Over Klippetinder
Det atter bruser.
Stormenes Sluser
Bryde med Vælde.
Over Norges Fielde
Til Danmarks Dale
I Skyernes Sale
De forklarede Gamle
Sig atter samle.

"For de sieldne Faae
"Som vor Gave forstaae;
"Som ei Jordlænker binde,
"Men hvis Siæle sig hæve
"Til det Eviges Tinde;
"Som ane det Høie,
"I Naturens Øie;
"Som tilbedende bæve
"For Guddommens Straaler,
"I Sole, i Violer,
"I det Mindste, i det Største;
"Som brændende tørste
"Efter Livets Liv;
"Som - o, store Aand
"For de svunde Tider!
"See dit Guddomsblik
"Paa Helligdommens Sider:
"For dem lyder atter vort Bliv.
"Naturens Søn,
"Ukiendt i Løn,
"Men som sine Fædre
"Kraftig og stor,
"Dyrkende sin Jord,
"Ham vil vi hædre:
"Han skal atter finde."
Saa synge de, og svinde.

Hrymfaxe den sorte,
Puster og dukker,
Og i Havet sig begraver.
Morgenens Porte
Delling oplukker,
Og Skinfaxe traver
I straalende Lue,
Paa Himlens Bue.

Ved lune Skov
Øxnene trække
Den tunge Plov,
Over sorten Dække.

Da standser Ploven,
Og en Gysen farer
Igiennem Skoven.
Fugleskarer
Pludselig tier.
Hellig Taushed
Alt indvier.

Da klinger i Muld
Det gamle Guld.

Tvende Glimt fra Oldtidsdage
Funkler i de nye Tider.
Selsomt vendte de tilbage,
Gaadefyldt paa røde Sider.

Mystisk Helligdom omsvæver
Deres gamle Tegn og Mærker.
Guddomsglorien ombæver
Evighedens Underværker.

Hædrer dem, thi Skiebnen skalter!
Snart maaskee de er forsvunden.
Jesu Blod paa Herrens Alter
Fylde dem, som Blod i Lunden!

Men I see kun Guldets Lue,
Ikke det ærværdigt Høie;
Sætte dem som Pragt til Skue
For et mat nysgierrigt Øie.

Himlen sortner, Storme brage;
Visse Time! du er kommen.
Hvad de gav, de tog tilbage.
Evig bortsvandt Helligdommen.

CountBloodSpawn
Friday, October 7th, 2005, 10:18 PM
what an awesome relic:thumbup a great and valueble find

Ulex
Saturday, October 8th, 2005, 12:28 AM
In this post I will not translate the poem mentioned above. I have tried to do so, but it appears to me that I am a better writer than I am a translator. I have great difficulties in expressing myself in English, and being rather paranoid, I begin to wonder, if the English language was created by God when he was in anger.

Instead I will retell the poem written by Oehlensläger, and just for the fun of it, I will retell it in verses.

As another Sheherazade I will tell the story little by little, knowing that when I get to the ending, I will probably be banned, as Oehlenslägers poem has a terrible conclusion.

Here goes, my patient Skadi readers:

They are looking everywhere,
in old and dusty books!
They open the mounds of our fathers,
eagerly watching,
the rusty swords and shields,
hoping to find answers
in runes carved by strong ancestrial hands.
Among crumbling bones.

The deeds of our fathers
are hidden in the Fog of Time

GreenHeart
Sunday, October 9th, 2005, 01:37 AM
Too bad the originals were destroyed by some idiot who made them into fake coins! :mad

Fire spirit
Wednesday, January 2nd, 2019, 10:52 PM
The replicas are lovely but not relics from the ancient past. That ending of the horns being melted down happened in 1802 was by a thief. The casts of those horns made back in the 18th Century also disappeared so we can only go by 17th Century drawings made of them.

The first of those two original horns was discovered by a peasant girl in 1639 named Kirsten Svendsdatter. Erich Lassenfound the second horn in 1734. (Off topic now but is it just possible there could be more of those waiting to be found?)

The girl Kirsten lived a dream when she found the golden horns. How fairytale and magical that must've been for her. This is her gravestone.

114108

This is a CD storybook (apologies if I have misunderstood it).

114109