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View Full Version : Neolithic Nordids



Frans_Jozef
Sunday, January 2nd, 2005, 03:28 AM
Kossinna(Ursprung und Verbreitung der Germanen in vor -und fruehgeschichtlicher Zeit, 1936) connects the Nordic races to three distinct UP races: Cro Magnon, Combe Capelle and Chancelade, all contributed in different degrees and solutions to the formation of the Nordic race and its subtypes. From Cro magnon the Nordic inherited its dolichoid strongly jutting dome-like ending skull shape, the prolific chin and beakyness of the nose, Combe Capelle allies with the Nordic in its receding forehead and manifest browridges as well the long face, Chancelade's ellipsoid rounded skull emerges among the Corded Ware type, though Montandon in his in 1943 published L'Homme préhistorique et les préhumains recalls that the Cromagnids had a rather similar skull form and that the pentagonoid contour of the Old Man of Cro Magnon was more exception than the rule; the medium height of the skull and hipsicephaly of Combe Capelle and Chancelade will find its analogy in the Corded type, however,both the Elb-Saale group in Thueringen as in Bohemia and the Oder group in Central Schlesia are flat-topped to moderately high, put down to either the shortheads of the Bell beaker population or to the
Danubians.

In any event, about the fourth to third millenium BC three nordiform skull types are to be found amoung the Northeuropean population:

1. a dolichoid with dome-like backhead, low or medium long face with equal dualistic measurements for the upper facial parts, steep forehead, with beaky nose, angular slant-like orbits, but unlike Cro Magnon the browridges are strong(finds: Mysinge,Öland, Swedish megalithic burials, Hunnebo in West Sweden).

2. a dolichoid type with receding forehead and marked browridges, long-faced but with roundish backhead(finds: Visby, Gotland).

3. the Avigny type: a dolichoid with long face and rounded backhead, but unlike the Capellids with steep forehead, lacking browridges(finds: Denmark, North France).


The typical Nordic long-headed skull became in pre-war literature inDenmark associated with the Cro Magnon race on behave of the flattened skull top that never quite reach the same primitive plane condition as in the Upper Paleolithic precedent; further the structure of the shull shape towards the lower rear leading to a dome- like jutting appendage, the beakyness of the nose as well finally the alveolar prognathy(while present in the Old Man of Cro Magnon, in general the Cromagnids were orthognatious!) applied for such relationship, but the nearly fleeding forehead behind well-developed browridges fail to sustain that analogy in every aspect, the malars
don't protrude but retract, which again is very unlike Cro Magnon, the angularity of the chin sympathisizes nevertheless with its pointive prominence in Cro Magnon, the narrow and medium long face can't be ascribed properly neither to a Combe Capelle-Chancelade (except in their mutual higher face) nor to the definetely euryprosopic Cro Magnon(FI 83!), the narrow bizygomatic breadth allows a Predmost element moulded into the Nordic race, albeit that Predmost was mesoprosopic, euryene to mesene, while his face width was broad down to narrow, coalescing with the Nordic average of 135mm.

The forehead is as a rule broad, smooth and sideways slightly bowed; in combination with the tapering backhead a Keilform is attained. For Central Germany, South Germany and Austria the ellipsoid form is more common and in later eras adhered by the Corded Ware people, both types are by Kossinna juxtapositioned against the Mediterrenean(Ibero- Insular?) race which skull is ovoid with narrow forehead and broadened backhead. Viewed from behind the Nordic skull appears "fünfeckig", Predmost and Mladec assumed a similar proclivity. The North German skulls adhere to the Denmark finds but with reduced dimensions, in Northeast Germany the vault height is higher, likewise the orbits and face and nose are broader than usual in the Nordic.

The Ostdorfer Seeinsel type was in a previous entry described. The Northwestern Germanic or megalithic type are at best typified by the 14 measurable remaining skulls from a <<Steinkammergrab>> in Warburg, Brandenburg. The skulls are partially long or medium long, notably smaller compared to the Northern and Northeastern types, but as the former low vaulted; the backhead doesn't profusely juts out, the <<Kegelform>> is still sustained, though; only three individuals show a rounding-off. The Keilform embraces three slightly deviating skull forms:

1. seven indivuals with a steep forehead and the Kegelform for the backhead.
2. four have receding foreheads with Kegelform.
3. The last three have a steep uprising forehead with rounded backhead.

Narrow and medium long faces are in the majority, outwitting the mere two individuals with broadish faces. H.F.K. Günther follows in Beknopte Rassenkunde der Germaansche Volken (Amsterdam,1942) Otto Reche's hypothesis that the Nordic race started from the Chancelade-linked form and refers to the finds at the Pritzerber Lake in Brandenburg, Oberehausen in the Rhineland and near Hochlarmarck in Recklinghausen. In this concept Central and Northwest Germany becomes the hearthland of the Nordic race; this stands correct, except that the contribution by the high-skulled and dwarfish Chancelade should perhaps be downweighed insofar that its qualities goes in the direction of refining the pre-Nordic types and administer the higher placed face, while in other characteristics these early Nordics are stronger related to Predmost, which modern representative is undoubtedly the Continental Paleo-Atlantid race (though limbs proportion differ!).